Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a progressive melanocytopenia of unknown etiology commonly seen as circumscribed, depigmented macules often associated with leucotrichia.

It can affect males, females and all races in the world.

The onset of vitiligo is seen as early as birth or as late as 81 years.

In a younger age group associated with a thyroid disorder, a deficiency of vitamin d3 & b12 is seen.

Types of Vitiligo

  • Generalized vitiligo where whole body is involved
  • Acrofacial vitiligo where limbs, toes, fingers, and lips are involved
  • Segmental vitiligo only one part or side of the body is involved
  • Contact vitiligo pigment is lost because of an allergic reaction

Vitiligo can also be divided into:

1. Stable Vitiligo
If there are no new lesions or an increase in the size of existing lesions for 6 months to 1 year it is considered as stable vitiligo. Vitiligo in stable cases can be treated with topical treatment such as steroids, immunomodulators, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, excimer laser. Surgeries such as grafting or melanocyte transplants can be done in stable conditions. Recovery from surgery takes about 4 to 7 days. The patient is asked to be careful with the transplanted and donor site. Do not wet the area. When done on lips, they are asked to take a liquid diet with the help of a straw. The review is done after 1 week to change the dressing.

2. Unstable Vitiligo
If the lesions are growing in size and new lesions are appearing it is called unstable vitiligo. In unstable vitiligo oral medication with steroids and immunosuppressants is used to stabilise the disease and bring the pigmentation back.

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